(This fix is primarily for Ford’s Fox Body vehicles, 1984-88, but it could have other useful applications as well.)

(This note was first written on January 3, 2017.)


There have been times when the stock AMMETER on my 1987 Turbo Coupe has become slow or unresponsive. Some time ago it was discovered that, by “goosing” it with battery current in a certain way, normal operation could be restored.

After a period of time the ammeter’s electromagnets become “tired” and fail to correctly show charge and discharge; or most often, anything. The stationary needle has been a source of frustration for me over the years.

The problem has been determining an easy way to access the rear of the device where the electrical terminals are found. The only prior way was to remove the instrument panel, the ammeter being a part of that assembly.

One remedy implemented years ago was to attach a length of wire to each ammeter terminal and situating the ends at an easily accessible location, thus greatly simplifying the process. During a recent repair attempt I was unable to locate this wiring, leading me to wonder if it wasn’t removed some time ago for safety reasons.

As the ammeter has again become completely unresponsive (it had been marginally so for some time), the search began for a better way to fix this condition, by discovering and then accessing the wiring leading to those terminals. This weblog entry is a partial record of what I’ve found, and a proposed fix.

1/27/17: I just found a self-made drawing on page 39 of Ford’s “Electrical and Troubleshooting Manual” detailing this connection. Here is a photo of that drawing:

Evernote Snapshot 20170127 181754.jpg

(UPDATE, February 4 2017: I solved my ammeter problem by doing the very thing I was trying to avoid–removing the dashboard instrument cluster and “shocking” the terminals. However, it now functions as intended, is very responsive and has good needle movement, so the trouble was worth it. Again, though, I used to know a better way, but I never wrote it down. The closest is the drawing, above, and I’m not certain that I ever actually tried that method.)

(I’ll update this post as information becomes available.)

>>What follows is additional information from the initial version of this note.


Here are two pages from Ford’s Wiring Schematic volume of the related areas:

Evernote Camera Roll 20170104 011228

Page 1, The ORIGINATING wiring. NOTE Fuse Link G on the Left side of the ammeter, and Fuse Links F, R and Y on the Right side.

Evernote Camera Roll 20170104 011415.jpg

Page 2, DESTINATION wiring. Note that connection from Fuse Link F (37Y) goes to Fuse #1.

Based on this, it would appear that connecting one lead to FUSE LINK G (Page 1) and another to the YELLOW wire at FUSE #1 (Page 2, above) should allow access to the ammeter terminals, just as before when connecting to each directly. Applying a small amount of current should then “shock” the ammeter’s internal magnets and restore operation.

This wiring diagram and drawing are intended ONLY AS A GUIDE. Additional research should be done before attempting to make any connections which could cause damage or serious personal injury.



I have a 1987 Ford Thunderbird Turbo Coupe. It’s been my prized car since January 18, 1991; it’s 30 years old this year, and I’ve been happily driving it almost that long.

Monument Valley T-Bird 1-22-92

No that is not a Photoshop image. Yes, I was actually there: January 22, 1992, Monument Valley, AZ/UT

As time has gone by, parts have been becoming more and more difficult to find. While at first all it took was a trip to a parts chain or a Ford dealership, after a few years the salvage yards became my best friends. Soon, however, even that source dried up, as fewer and fewer cars were getting into accidents and finding their way into the salvage yards. Finally, the last resort has been the Saved Search feature of eBay (and the occasional find on Craigslist). I have boxes of mechanical and trim parts I’ve collected from eBay over the years, all kinds of spares for the day when I might need them.

You’ve got to be very resourceful, imaginative and creative when you drive a car that’s 30 years old. That’s what this new weblog category on my BroodCoffeeTalk website is all about. Repairing, adapting, modifying parts and supplies so they will work and restore functionality.

This new category is called Tech Talk–DIY.

And it doesn’t stop there. I’ll also discuss repairs to other things, whatever I’m working on at the time. The goal is to take what I have learned and share it with others. I’ve spent hours on the Internet trying to find answers to my problems…perhaps someone else will be more lucky and find what they are looking for on this site.

Please share any of your own tips and tricks, as well as any questions you might have.

Let’s begin, shall we?


ZAGG has a reputation for its innovative products. Sadly, however, one of them has a considerable design issue, and one that the company has (so far) refused to acknowledge, despite numerous customer complaints. Fortunately, however, I’ve developed an inexpensive repair for this oversight that I’ll provide in detail later on.

I’ve been very happy with the two ZAGG iPhone screen protectors I’ve owned, initially for the iPhone 6 Plus and then more recently the 6S Plus. They function as well as one could reasonably expect such a product to perform…in the case of the 6S Plus, the screen protector absorbed most of the impact when I accidentally dropped a can of Campbell’s Chunky Soup on my iPhone, surprisingly causing no display damage.

I’ve similarly been quite pleased with the ZAGG InvisibleShield Glass Screen protector for my 9.7″ iPad Pro. Considering that the easiest and most often used method to access a tablet device is through touchscreen input, a good screen protector is essential to preserving that touchscreen surface. This item does that, while also providing me with its assurance of quality that it will do its job well.

Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of its Slim Book Ultrathin Case, Hinged with Detachable Backlit Keyboard (referred to from now on as the Case). There exists a serious design flaw that cannot be ignored or, frankly, tolerated.

Some backstory: I purchased my iPad Pro 9.7″ unit with the aforementioned ZAGG InvisibleShield Glass Screen Protector and above-mentioned Case several months ago (August 2016). This was not a bundle–I did considerable research on all available options including both ZAGG products. I read whatever reviews I could find on all of the different choices, all of which factored into my buying decision. While the screen protector received rave reviews, not so much for the Case. More on that in a bit.

The Case consists of two parts: one piece fits around the iPad, providing what appears to be a secure enclosure. I haven’t dropped my iPad Pro, so I can’t speak to its protective qualities. But all the holes do line up perfectly with the various buttons and ports, and it is a heavier-duty plastic than what I saw with other products. Overall I’d say I’m very pleased with this part of the Case.

The other half is the Bluetooth keyboard with its enclosed battery. The iPad portion of the Case fits neatly into the hinge bracket found on this part, creating the classic “clamshell” design. Once installed, the tablet is secured with magnets embedded into the bracket. The magnets provide just enough “pull” to keep the iPad secure but not so much as to make it difficult to remove the tablet for solo use.

It’s a snap to pair the keyboard with the iPad. The included instruction manual provides a guide to setting up the backlighting, which is offered in a variety of colors. There are 14 keys found on the top row (like Function keys) that are tied in to matching features on the iPad…these work very well.

The Case is overall a fine unit. It appears to be well constructed, thought out and engineered. Its keyboard holds up to repeated use well and has a very nice “feel” to its keys. I’ve found that it pointedly does not offer “two year’s worth of battery life,” as ZAGG claims; I hardly qualify as a “power user” as I use my iPad for only several hours each day. Still, I have already had to recharge the battery several times.

So it sounds like a great product: an excellent way to have the best of both worlds, a tablet and a laptop. Well, that’s what I thought too, even after reading through dozens of reviews that were mostly negative. Despite this, I decided to spend the $130 on Amazon to purchase it. (It’s now as of this writing listed at $80.)

Why all the negative reviews? Well, to start with, you’d be correct if you’d be suspicious of just how well a hinge bracket made of plastic can be trusted to stand up to the repeated stress of opening and closing this unit. Most of the reviews I read were not good; many users found that after time–varying from just a few hours to (in my case) several months later–the plastic of the hinge bracket cracks in either or both ends, the result being that when you open the Case to access the tablet and attached keyboard, the iPad abruptly pulls loose entirely from the Case. As this is (at first) unexpected, depending on where and how you are opening the Case, there is a good chance that you’ll drop either or both parts, causing possible damage to at least the iPad. (At that point you’re probably more than a bit disappointed and not too concerned about the keyboard part.)

Obviously this doesn’t provide a very good user experience. Many have asked why ZAGG doesn’t manufacture that hinge from a stronger material, such as metal.

ZAGG’s response is, essentially, “you’re not doing it right”–you’re not opening the Case correctly and/or you’re not transporting it correctly. The company calls the plastic hinge bracket “durable” and recommends that the following procedure be used when opening the Case: put the spine of the Case on a flat surface and separate the left and right halves by pulling each apart and away from the other. Also, they recommend not carrying the Case around as one might a laptop by using its keyboard half (which weighs quite a bit). They claim this can damage the Case’s hinge.

Some of the reviewers claim to be “power users”, frequently pulling their iPad from a backpack or bag many times in the course of a day. Others suffered the hinge damage almost immediately.

(You can read more about this item HERE. Scroll down that page to read the reviews.)

Last week it happened to me as well. Despite carefully opening and closing the Case as described and despite carrying it as instructed, both ends of the allegedly-durable plastic hinge bracket cracked, essentially making the keyboard part of the Case a separate entity.

I was very unhappy and carefully considered my next course of action. I tried repairing the cracked parts using Super Glue, even though I knew that would likely void my warranty…and, while the repair worked for a couple of openings and closings, soon that also failed. I didn’t see any reason to contact ZAGG for a warranty replacement, as that part would eventually likely crack and fail as well on the new one.

What to do? Well, I already said that I really liked the Case, so I set about finding a way to repair it.

What I came up with is both simple and elegant. I’m going to provide the most basic step-by-step instructions, because frankly if you can’t figure out how to do it yourself you probably shouldn’t be attempting it in the first place.

Obviously this WILL void your warranty. So choose your plan of action carefully.

You’ll need the following things: slipjoint pliers, needle nose pliers, a fine point Sharpie, a good straightedge (that means a metal, not wood) millimeter ruler (if you use a t-square you’ll have the best tool for accurate straight lines). Also good sharp tin snips, a small piece of stainless steel sheet metal, a flat metal file, a can of flat black spray paint and some GOOP adhesive. You can find all these things at a hardware or home improvement store, such as Ace Hardware or Home Depot.

Simply put, the steps are as follows: you’ll be measuring the sheet metal with the straightedge, cutting it with the tin snips, using the file to smooth any sharp edges, measuring the crease lines with the straightedge/t-square and marking them with the Sharpie, and then folding/bending it into shape with both sets of pliers. Once you’ve got it so that it fits well (by test fitting it on the Case) paint JUST THE OUTSIDE and attach it to the hinge bracket, using a very small amount of GOOP to secure it into place.

The test-fitting requires patience, as it is a trial-and-error process, so plan on taking your time with this step.

What exactly will you be making? Metal “clips” that fit neatly over the ends of the hinge bracket, providing the necessary reinforcement for opening and closing the Case. You can still remove the iPad, of course, but the seriously flawed hinge bracket problem is solved.

What I don’t understand is why ZAGG didn’t do this in the first place. I’m just a do-it-yourselfer, maybe a little on the advanced side but with no specialized training nor degree, and I came up with this solution after just a little bit of thought and testing. I’m certainly no match for the R&D (research and development) department of a big company. It can’t be that hard to manufacture these parts and attach them to the Case during assembly, eliminating the problem and making it a 5 star product.

Here are some notes and drawings I made (using the Apple Pencil) that provide measurements and other information.

The first one above illustrates the problem using a simplified drawing of the hinge bracket.
The second drawing features the proposed repair clip:

What you are creating are 2 metal strips, 3.5 cm X 4.5 cm, which will become the reinforcing clips. These strips are shown in the third drawing, below. Using the Sharpie, CAREFULLY measure; and using the straightedge/t-square, draw the lines. Again–I cannot stress how important it is that you are accurate in this work, else not only will the finished product look bad but it probably won’t fit properly, and you’ll be spending a lot of time trying to fix that. Some extra effort spent in the pieces’ creation will pay off greatly later on.

Find a suitable straight edge on a countertop, table, desk, etc. Starting with the first strip, bend it CAREFULLY along the dotted line using the countertop straight edge, making sure the result is straight, then double it by bending the two halves together. This is necessary because the one layer of metal is not enough to secure the (cracked) ends of the hinge bracket, but both together will be. Use the slipjoint pliers to flatten the fold/bend point as much as you can. This is important because there has to be enough clearance so the clip will clear the space between the bottom surface of the keyboard and the hinge. You could carefully use a small hammer, but I found the pliers worked well. This first folded edge will be located on the bottom of the Case; the opposite edges will be on the top.

The rest is just bending the strip along the lines you’ve drawn (again, CAREFULLY), using the needle nose pliers. I’m sure there’s other ways that might work better, but again this worked well for me. Start on a side for one bend, then switch to the other side. In this way work on getting a good sharp fold in the metal. (You can hold the section with the needle nose pliers and tap on the other side with a small hammer to get a good crease.)

When that’s all done the next step is to make a slight fold across the center part of the repair clip. You’ll see by studying the spine of the Case that there’s a slight angle to the back of it; the repair bracket should mirror that angle so it will fit tightly against it. The result should be that the top and bottom surfaces are NOT parallel, there must be a narrower gap in the front edges than the back spine, similar to spring clips used for example to hold things like papers together and to keep bags of snack chips sealed tightly. This is so the clips have the same sort of spring action, which will not only keep them in place but also help support the hinge bracket in the opening and closing of the Case.

After you’re done making all the creases you’ll notice that one side of the piece is longer than the other. This is intentional, so you can cut off the excess when you’ve gotten the piece to fit properly. This edge should be on the top section of the clip. You’ll see in the pictures just below how I created my clips and how this bottom edge is a bit longer than the top one, because the bottom part of the hinge bracket is a bit thicker than the top. (Take a look at my finished clips below if you are having difficulty understanding my description.) DON’T TRIM THIS BOTTOM PART, where the fold is! The two pieces will come apart and won’t be as sturdy! While the bottommost part is longer, that’s okay. The TOP part–which is where the cut edges are–can be trimmed so that it doesn’t cause contact with the Case. TRIM CAREFULLY! The second clip I made I trimmed too short, and I wasn’t happy with how it looked. For maximum strength it should extend just to the edge of the black plastic of the Case.

Use the slipjoint pliers to make a very slight inward bend on the bottom edge. This helps the clip stay in place. (Again, study the pictures below–in the last one, this slight inward bend is clearly visible on the left side of both pieces.)

Recall I said before to paint only one side, which is the outer surface…this is because the GOOP won’t adhere as well to a painted surface. Be sure to clean the finished metal with soap and water before painting and then allow it to fully dry. Follow the instructions on the paint can exactly, apply several light coats (so the paint doesn’t run) and then LEAVE IT ALONE to dry completely (at the very least, overnight) before handling. The paint can’s directions might say that you can handle it after an hour or so. DON’T. Be patient! Nothing looks more amateurish than a paint job with runs and/or fingerprints on it.

After you’ve left it dry completely, use a bit of soap and water to clean the inner unpainted part of the clips and the corresponding locations on the Hinge Bracket spine. This is to help the GOOP stick better.

Here’s what mine looked like when they were ready to be installed:

The next step is to CAREFULLY apply the GOOP. Use JUST A LITTLE on both the inner center section of the repair clip and the spine of the Case… GOOP is stronger when applied to both surfaces. It would be a good idea to test fit and mark it so the GOOP doesn’t end up all over the place. After applying, install the clips. (I found that I had to use the needle nose pliers to gently pull out on the front edge of a clip to slide it into place and install it.) Don’t count on the stuff alone to hold the clip on. Both clips should fit tightly without it. The GOOP is there just to prevent the clips from sliding around on the spine of the Case.

I left about a one-eighth (1/8) inch space on the left outside and right outside edges of each clip, respectively, from the corresponding ends of the Hinge Bracket.

Here’s the finished product, installed on the Case:

There’s a good bit of shaping/reshaping, bending/re-bending and filing involved with this repair. Take your time and work CAREFULLY to get a finished product you can be proud of, and that will also last a long time.

While it’s only been several days since I created and installed the repair clips, I’ve had every indication that this will be a lasting and permanent repair.

It’s a real pity that ZAGG could not have engineered such a repair and made it available to its users; more distressing still is that this feature was not included in the design originally. This lack of product responsibility is enough of a big deal to me that I’d have to take a long look at ZAGG products in the future.

How-to: Quickly transferring your choice of data from an old Mac to a new one

Not long ago I purchased an older Macintosh computer for use as a desktop machine. I depend on a MacBook Pro for my everyday use, but there are times when I need a second computer, running concurrently with the MBP, for research. I needed to find a relatively fast and easy way to transfer certain files and folders from my workhorse machine to my recently-obtained older one.

I already have two Mac desktops–an iMac Indigo model from early 2001, which has a slower processor (500MHz); and a 2002 iMac G4 (Flat Panel) (the cool looking flatscreen-monitor-on-a-stalk machine known as Sunflower), which has a not-much-faster 800MHz processor.

Let me take a few moments to try and explain why one might have so many computers.

It’s a sad fact of personal computers that a sort of unplanned obsolescence takes place. Moore’s Law–which is really not a law but more of an observation–states that processor speed will double roughly every two years. Since everyone wants the newest and best available and not yesterday’s models, and computer manufacturers don’t design a way to add fasters processors or allow most circuit board components to be upgradeable, these older computers have much in common with the rusted and decaying hulks of metal, glass and plastic that are the abandoned automobiles one often sees in vacant lots grown up with weeds.

The difference is that these computers still function. While older cars possess moving parts that eventually give way and wear out, ending their operational use, computers nearly always still function much the same as new. While the reason for this is obviously that computers have very few moving parts, there is another more important element.

To continue the automobile analogy: it would be as if every other year cars were made to go twice as fast. While this is an interesting idea in itself, further imagine that as this was taking place, both the maximum and minimum speed limits on highways were increased, to coincide with the release of the newer, faster automobiles. This would likely mean changes in the way these roads were built as well, to accommodate the advanced vehicles.

Therefore, a car that was several years old and had a top speed of 70 mph, for instance, would soon be legally unable to even get on the highway once the minimum speed limit was increased to 75.

So it is with personal computers. While all parts might still function as originally intended, software that was once less complex and smaller in data size soon increases in both complexity and relative size to meet the heftier demands of the newer and more powerful machines.

Imagine that you get a raise at work and go out and buy new furniture. Well, the new furniture is bigger and has more pieces that the old, so now you have to move to a new home because you need the extra space. The furniture is that new software that you want to or have to run…your aging computer is your old home.

Simply put–older machines can’t effectively run newer more advanced software as well. They become sluggish and are generally unresponsive–if they are even capable of running it at all.

Sadly, my most recently acquired Mac will eventually fall by the side of the road as well…but for now, it works well and does what I want.

It’s a PowerMac G4 FW800, and the first machine to have a Firewire (FW) 800 port, which allows data transfer of about 800 megabits per second (Mbit/s)–actually 786.432 Mbit/s. This is almost twice as fast as USB 2.0 (at 480 Mbit/s), which up until recently was the data transfer most often used by Windows-based computers.

I tend to be attracted to computers that hold some kind of milestone or signpost in history. The Mirror Drive Door Macs (of which this is one) were only around a short time, but were among the fastest and most powerful of all computers for that span.

Another plus is it is one of the first of the older models that will run OS X 10.5 Leopard, the last OS available for PPC processors (Apple switched to Intel in 2006). I’ve always been fond of this version of the Mac’s operating system.

I wanted to transfer my personal settings, files and folders from the MacBook Pro to this machine. Apple has created an application to do just that, called Migration Assistant.

Migration Assistant’s opening window (click to enlarge). Credit: Apple Inc.

One of the very good reasons to utilize Migration Assistant is that it allows the use of Firewire to transfer data from machine to machine. This Mac has USB 1.1, which is okay for most things…but it has a top speed for data transfer of 12 Mbit/s, and if I used that to transfer the data it would be a long and arduous process…and depending on how much data I have, it could take somewhere on the magnitude of days to complete.

One of the problems with Migration Assistant is that it doesn’t allow you to select individual files or folders. The app’s twin, Setup Assistant–which appears when you first install a new OS or start up a brand new Mac–is great for the initial transfer of information, and works quite well. But it won’t allow you to choose individual files and folders either. Maybe you have an external hard drive filled with hundreds of gigabytes of pictures and family videos. If you wanted to transfer only certain data from that drive, neither Assistant could help you.

Another problem is that Migration Assistant isn’t designed to try and transfer data from a newer OS to an older machine–you’ll get the “There is no version of OS X on this machine” message on the older computer (“this machine” meaning the one with the newer OS).

So, if you’re trying to accomplish what I am–in either or both examples–there has to be another way.

Fortunately, there is. The trick is to allow the app to make the Firewire connection for you…then just transfer the information yourself. If it sounds complicated, it’s not. It’s actually not much harder than copying and pasting from one to the other.

The first thing you’ll want to do is disable FileVault, if you use it. FileVault is a way to keep your Mac’s data more safe and secure, should it fall into the wrong hands. It encrypts that dataconverts it to a special type of code–that makes it extremely difficult for anyone that doesn’t know the code to translate it. Chances are, if you have this you already know about it. It’s a special option and is something that you could not turn on accidentally. If you have questions or need assistance in turning it off or learning more about it, you can find instructions here for OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, or here for 10.7 Lion and 10.8 Mountain Lion.

Next you’ll want to start Migration Assistant on the Destination Mac–the one that will be receiving the information. It’s found in the Applications folder>Utilities subfolder. (Full instructions for using the app can be found here.)

Follow the step by step directions found on the display. Briefly, this is what you’ll do (I would advise reading the instructions found at the above link if you are unfamiliar with the procedure). Click the Continue button on the Destination Mac after each step:

  • Connect the appropriate Firewire cable to both machines (either FW400 or 800–the cables aren’t interchangeable).
  • Set the Source Mac up in Target Disk mode. This essentially involves making it into a giant hard drive.You do this by restarting it and holding down the “T” key as soon as the screen goes black. Continue to hold down the “T” key until you see the big Firewire symbol appear.
  • When the message “Firewire connection established” appears, STOP.
  • You can now minimize the Migration Assistant. We won’t be needing it for the remainder of the transfer, but don’t close it completely or you could disrupt the connection.
  • By now you should have the icon of an orange rectangle bearing the Firewire symbol appearing on the Destination Mac’s display. Its name will be the same as the Source Mac’s hard drive, and is a representation of it. (You might have more than one, depending on how many drives you have in the Source Mac.)
  • Now, all you have to do is double-click on the Source Mac’s drive icon found on the Destination Mac’s display to find what you’d like to transfer, open the Destination Mac’s hard drive icon to locate where you’d like to put it, highlight and drag the files and folders you want from one to the other.
  • It’s important to remember that you’re only copying the files and folders, not actually moving them.
  • This is the easy part–you wait for the transfer to complete.
  • Once you’re done copying all the data you wanted to transfer, highlight the Source Mac’s hard drive icon and drag it to the Destination Mac’s Trash. This ejects the drive.
  • DO NOT DISCONNECT THE FIREWIRE CABLE UNTIL YOU HAVE EJECTED THE DRIVE! It’s possible you could damage the Source Mac’s drive if you don’t eject it first from the Destination Mac’s desktop.
  • Once it no longer appears on the desktop, you can disconnect the Firewire cable from both machines.
  • Restart the Source Mac by pressing the Power button to turn it off. After a few moments, press the button again to start it up.
  • You’re done!

By following these instructions you can enjoy the higher speed of a Firewire data transfer, which is especially good if your machine is otherwise only capable of the snail’s pace slooowwwness of the older USB 1.1 standard.

(Note: it is also possible to connect the computers directly with a short length of ethernet cable, which should provide the same results. While I have not attempted this transfer method, more on it can be found here–almost at the end of the article. Click the link marked Wireless (Wi-Fi) or Ethernet Migration.”)